Repeter

repeter

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What is a Repeater? (HAM Radio) - TheSmokinApe repeter

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Repeaters are found in professional, commercial, and government mobile radio systems and also in amateur radio. Radio repeaters improve communication coverage in systems using frequencies that typically have line-of-sight propagation. Without a repeater, these systems are limited in range by the curvature of the Earth and the blocking effect of terrain or high buildings. A repeater on a hilltop or tall building can allow stations that are out of each other's line-of-sight range to communicate reliably.

Radio repeaters may also allow translation from one set of radio frequencies to another, for example to allow two different public service agencies to interoperate say, police and fire services of a city, or neighboring police departments. They may provide links to the public switched telephone network as well. Close Menu. Before the invention of electronic amplifiers, mechanically coupled carbon microphones were used as amplifiers in telephone repeaters.

After the turn of the 20th century it was found that negative resistance mercury lamps could amplify, and they were used. In the s vacuum tube repeaters using hybrid coils became commonplace, allowing the use of thinner wires. In the s negative impedance gain devices were more popular, and a transistorized version called the E6 repeater was the final major type used in the Bell System before the low cost of digital transmission made all voiceband repeaters obsolete.

Frequency frogging repeaters were commonplace in frequency-division multiplexing systems from the middle to late 20th century. This is a type of telephone repeater used in underwater submarine telecommunications cables. This is used to increase the range of signals in a fiber optic cable. Digital information travels through a fiber optic cable in the form of short pulses of light.

The light is made up of particles called photons , which can be absorbed or scattered in the fiber. An optical communications repeater usually consists of a phototransistor which converts the light pulses to an electrical signal, an amplifier to increase the power of the signal, an electronic filter which reshapes the pulses, and a laser which converts the electrical signal to light again and sends it out the other fiber.

However, optical amplifiers are being developed for repeaters to amplify the light itself without the need of converting it to an electric signal first. This is used to extend the range of coverage of a radio signal. The first relay system with radio repeaters, which really functioned, was that invented in by Emile Guarini-Foresio.

A radio repeater usually consists of a radio receiver connected to a radio transmitter. The received signal is amplified and retransmitted, often on another frequency, to provide coverage beyond the obstruction.

Usage of a duplexer can allow the repeater to use one antenna for both receive and transmit at the same time. Radio repeaters improve communication coverage in systems using frequencies that typically have line-of-sight propagation.

Without a repeater, these systems are limited in range by the curvature of the Earth and the blocking effect of terrain or high buildings. A repeater on a hilltop or tall building can allow stations that are out of each other's line-of-sight range to communicate reliably.

Radio repeaters may also allow translation from one set of radio frequencies to another, for example to allow two different public service agencies to interoperate say, police and fire services of a city, or neighboring police departments. They may provide links to the public switched telephone network as well. Typically a repeater station listens on one frequency, A, and transmits on a second, B.

All mobile stations listen for signals on channel B and transmit on channel A. Often the repeater station will use the same antenna for transmission and reception; highly selective filters called "duplexers" separate the faint incoming received signal from the billions of times more powerful outbound transmitted signal.

Sometimes separate transmitting and receiving locations are used, connected by a wire line or a radio link. While the repeater station is designed for simultaneous reception and transmission, mobile units need not be equipped with the bulky and costly duplexers, as they only transmit or receive at any time. Mobile units in a repeater system may be provided with a "talkaround" channel that allows direct mobile-to-mobile operation on a single channel.

This may be used if out of reach of the repeater system, or for communications not requiring the attention of all mobiles. The "talkaround" channel may be the repeater output frequency; the repeater will not retransmit any signals on its output frequency. An engineered radio communication system designer will analyze the coverage area desired and select repeater locations, elevations, antennas, operating frequencies and power levels to permit a predictable level of reliable communication over the designed coverage area.

This type is used in channels that transmit data in the form of an analog signal in which the voltage or current is proportional to the amplitude of the signal, as in an audio signal. They are also used in trunklines that transmit multiple signals using frequency division multiplexing FDM. Analog repeaters are composed of a linear amplifier, and may include electronic filters to compensate for frequency and phase distortion in the line.

The digital repeater is used in channels that transmit data by binary digital signals , in which the data is in the form of pulses with only two possible values, representing the binary digits 1 and 0. A digital repeater amplifies the signal, and it also may retime, resynchronize, and reshape the pulses. A repeater that performs the retiming or resynchronizing functions may be called a regenerator.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Relay station. This article is about the electronic device. For other uses, see Repeater disambiguation. Main article: Optical communications repeater.

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What is a Repeater in Ham Radio - How Ham Radio Works

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